ESD Database


ESD Association –

Voluntary association dedicated to advancing the understanding of EOS and the theory and practice of electrostatic discharge (ESD) avoidance.

Board of Directors

ESD Standards-setting Organizations

Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solution

ATIS 0600321.2020

A standards organization that develops technical and operational standards and solutions for the ICT industry. Sets standards for electrical protection for network operator-type equipment positions.

American Association of Textile Colorists and Chemists (AATCC)

AATCC is the world’s leading not-for-profit professional association for the textile design, materials, processing, and testing industries.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) promotes and facilitates voluntary consensus standards and conformity assessment systems, and safeguarding their integrity.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

The ASTM is a professional organization whose primary mission is to develop voluntary full consensus standards for materials, products, systems and services. Many of these standards are used in a variety of industries that are concerned with contamination control.

Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)

A partnership of electronic and high-tech associations and companies whose mission is to promote the market development and competitiveness of the U.S. high-tech and electronics industries through domestic and international policy efforts.

JESD625-A replaces EIA-625

ESD Association (ESDA)

ANSI/ESD S20.20-2021

A voluntary body that, among other ESD-related objectives, consultation, testing and training, sets global standards for static control. ANSI/ESD S20.20 is a standard for electronics and electronics manufacturing and handling facilities.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

A non-profit organization, IEEE is the world’s leading professional association for the advancement of technology. Through its global membership, IEEE is a leading authority on areas ranging from aerospace systems, computers and telecommunications to biomedical engineering, electric power and consumer electronics among others. 

C63.16-2016 Expanded explanations, best practices, and guidance for avoiding the pitfalls associated with electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing to IEC and other international ESD standards are provided and should be considered a supplement to these standards, rather than a replacement

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

The International Electrotechnical Commission is the international standards and conformity assessment body for all fields of electrotechnology.

IEC 61000-4-2: The ESD Standard for System Level Testing The IEC standard is a system level test that replicates a charged person discharging to a system in a system end user environment.

Motorola Solutions

Motorola R56

An American data communications and telecommunications equipment provider. Sets standards and guidelines for communications sites.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIS)

Non-regulatory federal agency within the U.S. Department of Commerce. NIST’s mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology in ways that enhance economic security and improve our quality of life.

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)

The world’s leading advocate of fire prevention and an authoritative source on public safety, NFPA develops, publishes, and disseminates more than 300 consensus codes and standards intended to minimize the possibility and effects of fire and other risks. NFP99 is obsolete with regards to static-control flooring.


Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

FAA 019f

The Federal Aviation Administrator is the regulator of all the nation’s civil aviation activities, including management of air traffic in U.S. airspace. Set the Federal Aviation Administration Standard (FAA 019) Lightning and Surge Protection, Grounding, Bonding, and Shielding Requirements for Facilities and Electronic Equipment

Army Corps of Engineers

UFGS 09 62 38 Static-Control Flooring

The United States Army Corps of Engineers is an engineer formation of the United States Army that has three primary mission areas: engineer regiment, military construction, and civil works. Unified Facilities Guide Specifications (UFGS) are a joint effort of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), the Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (HQ AFCESA), the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (HQ AFCEE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). UFGS are for use in specifying construction for the military services. 

Department of Defense (USA)

DOD 4145.26-2018

The United States Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government directly related to national security and the United States Armed Forces. Created DOD Contractor’s Safety Manual for Ammunition and Explosives.

ESD Standards & Specifications by Industry

Army Corps of Engineers

Static-control flooring unified facilities guide specifications

Spec #: UFGS 09 62 38

Description: If the proper special footwear will not be worn on the static-control floor, a type of static-control flooring that provides very low static generation without special footwear should be specified. This type of flooring, such as static-control carpet, may be appropriate for mission critical areas such as 911 centers, call centers and air traffic control areas.


Conductive Vinyl Tile
Conductive vinyl tile must be a homogeneous vinyl product and conform to ASTM F1700. Provide electrical resistance from surface to surface and surface to ground between 25,000 ohms (2.5 x 10E4) and 1,000,000 ohms (1.0 x 10E6).

Conductive Rubber
Provide electrical resistance from surface to surface and surface to ground between 25,000 ohms (2.5 x 104) and 1,000,000 ohms (1.0 x 10E6).

Static-dissipative vinyl
Provide electrical resistance from surface to surface and surface to ground between 1,000,000 ohms (1.0 x 10E6) and 1,000,000,000 ohms (1.0 x 10E9).

Static-dissipative rubber
Provide electrical resistance from surface to surface and surface to ground between 1,000,000 ohms (1.0 x 10E6) and 1,000,000,000 ohms (1.0 x 10E9).

Static-control carpet
Provide electrical resistance from surface to surface and surface to ground between 25,000 ohms (2.5 x 10E4) and 100,000,000 ohms (1.0 x 10E8) ohms when tested in accordance with NFPA 99.

Best Practice Recommendations for Data Centers

IBM Data Center Recommendations: Use these guidelines to minimize static electricity buildup in your data center.

Floor covering material can contribute to buildup of high static electrical charges as a result of the motion of people, carts, and furniture in contact with the floor material. Abrupt discharge of the static charges causes discomfort to personnel and might cause malfunction of electronic equipment.

Static buildup and discharge can be minimized by:

  • Maintaining the relative humidity of the room within the server operating limits. Choose a control point that normally keeps the humidity between 35 percent and 60 percent. See the Air conditioning determinationfor further guidance.
  • Providing a conductive path to ground from a metallic raised floor structure including the metal panels.
  • Grounding the raised floor metallic support structure (stringer, pedestals) to building steel at several places within the room. The number of ground points is based on the size of the room. The larger the room, the more ground points are required.
  • Ensuring the maximum resistance for the flooring system is 2 x 10E10 ohms*, measured between the floor surface and the building (or an applicable ground reference). Flooring material with a lower resistance will further decrease static buildup and discharge. For safety, the floor covering and flooring system should provide a resistance of no less than 150 kilohms** when measured between any two points on the floor space 1 m (3 ft.) apart.
  • Maintenance of antistatic floor coverings (carpet and tile) should be in agreement with the individual supplier’s recommendations. Carpeted floor coverings must meet electrical conductivity requirements. Use only antistatic materials with low-propensity ratings.
  • Using ESD-resistant furniture with conductive casters to prevent static buildup.

* StaticWorx recommends a resistance ceiling of 1.0 x 10E9 ohms, per ANSI/ESD S20.20 (with an optimal ceiling of 1.0 x 10E8). If a floor with an electrical resistance above 10E9 were to lose conductivity–due to its makeup or environmental factors such as dry air, dirt and debris–it could become too resistant to properly discharge static to ground.

** 150 kilohms is the same as 150,000 ohms (1.5 x 10E5)

Electronics Industry

ANSI/ESD S20.20–2021

ANSI/ESD S20.20 was modified in 2021. Purchase a copy here.

ESD Association Standard for the Development of an Electrostatic Discharge Control Program for Protection of Electrical and Electronic Parts, Assemblies and Equipment (Excluding Electrically Initiated Explosive Devices). This standard provides administrative and technical requirements for establishing, implementing and maintaining an ESD Control Program.

For ESD flooring requirements, please see the relevant Standard Test Method.

For fundamentals on electrostatic discharge and further information on ESD standards, see: Fundamentals of Electrostatic Discharge.


Class-0 Electronic Devices

Class 0: Although standards organizations have not fully defined the term ESD Class 0 for manufacturing programs, the classification is widely used within the electronics industry to represent ultra-sensitive devices. While most companies are acutely aware of the hazards of ESD (electrostatic discharge), few are aware of best practices for preventing failures of today’s extremely sensitive devices often referred to as Class 0.

Floors for Class 0 applications must satisfy electrical resistance requirements in ANSI/ESD S20.20 and generate less than 20 volts of electrostatic current.

Point to Point, Point to Groundable Point, and Footwear/Flooring System: < 1.0 x 10E9

Charge Generation: < 20 volts


Global standard for microelectronics industry.

Requirements for Handling Electrostatic Discharge Sensitive Devices

Establishes the minimum requirements for Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) control methods and materials used to protect electronic devices that are susceptible to damage or degradation from electrostatic discharge (ESD). 

IEC 61340-5-1:2024

From IECEE.ORG: Electrostatics – Part 5-1: Protection of electronic devices from electrostatic phenomena – General requirements.

The purpose of this standard is to provide the administrative and technical requirements for establishing, implementing and maintaining an ESD control program …This [updated] version of IEC 61340-5-1 has been aligned with other major ESD control program standards used throughout the world.

Note: This is the European equivalent to ANSI/ESD S20.20

Federal Aviation Administration: Flight Control Towers and Facilities Using FAA Equipment

FAA 019f Standard for Lightning Protection, Grounding, Bonding and Shielding Requirements for Facilities, Documents 1.4.1

Note: For use near energized equipment: Static Conductive Materials.

Those materials with a surface resistivity less than 1.0 x 10E5 ohms per square when tested per ANSI/ESD STM11.11 shall be considered conductive. Conductive ESD control materials shall not be used for ESD control work surfaces, tabletop mats, floor mats, flooring, or carpeting where the risk of personnel contact with energized electrical or electronic equipment exists. Conductive ESD control materials shall not be used in any other application where their use could result in EMI or radio frequency interference (RFI) that would be created by rapid, high voltage ESD spark discharges.

110 ε 5.8.9 Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)Control Flooring and Floor Coverings ESD control floors and floor coverings shall have a point-to-point resistance and a surface-to-ground resistance of greater than 1.0 x 10E6 ohms and less than 1.0 x 10E9 ohms (ANSI/ESD STM7.1).

Health Care


NFPA 99 establishes criteria for levels of health care services or systems based on risk to patients, staff, or visitors in health care facilities to minimize the hazards of fire, explosion, and electricity.

Requirements of NFPA 99 address installation, inspection, testing, maintenance, performance, and safe practices for facilities, material, equipment, and appliances, including medical gas and vacuum systems.

In 2015, the NFPA eliminated conductive flooring from their standard, making NFPA 99 an outdated standard for ESD flooring.


Motorola R56 Public Safety and Telecommunications standards and guidelines for the installation of equipment, infrastructure, and facilities for communications sites. Appendix C: Protecting against electrostatic discharge in equipment rooms and dispatch centers.

  • C.3.3 FLOORING Carpeting or floor tiles within an equipment room or dispatch center, including raised flooring, should have a resistance to ground measurement of between 10E6 and 10E10 ohms when measured using the test method of ANSI/ESD STM7.1-2001 or later.

This commercial standard is used for network-operated dispatch operations, such as 9-1-1 call centers.

ATIS-0600321.2020 Network Operator Dispatch Call Centers – See more at: 

This telecommunications industry standard covers new installations of network operator-type equipment positions in which personnel are required to access a computer terminal keyboard while continually wearing a headset. Measures are presented to help to control ESD in the network operator-type environment. To help minimize the effects of lightning, surges from commercial ac power lines, and power switching operations, measures are provided for equipotential bonding and grounding at the telephone Cable Entrance Facility (CEF) and the Power Entrance Facility (PEF), as well as for equipotential bonding, grounding and, where necessary, electrical protection at the network operator-type equipment position(s).

Section 4: Measures for Controlling Electrostatic Discharge 4.2 Flooring Any carpeting or floor tiles should have a resistance to ground between 10E6 and 10E10 ohms when measured using the method of ESD-S7.1.

US Military Department of Defense


The Manual provides safety standards common to DoD and private industry ammunition and explosives (AE), operations, and facilities performing AE work or AE services under DoD contracts, subcontracts, purchase orders, or other procurement methods. DoD 6055.9-STD (Reference (c)) establishes these AE safety standards and serves as the primary source document for this Manual.” 

C6.4. STATIC ELECTRICITY AND GROUNDING C6. Test Criteria The contractor can set the maximum resistance limits for the floor to the ground system and for the combined resistance of a person’s body plus the shoes, as long as the total resistance does not exceed 1,000,000 ohms [1.0 x 10E6]. 

C6. Minimum Resistance To protect against electrocution, the minimum resistance of the floor to the ground system … shall exceed 40,000 ohms [4.0 x 10E4] in areas with 110 volts service and 75,000 ohms [7.5 x 10E4] in areas with 220 volts service.

Mil STD 1686 (converted to ANSI/ESD S20.20) is the parent document for all ESD Association standards and is the main reference for Auditing an ESD Control Program. The United States Department of Defense has adopted ANSI/ESD S20.20 as a replacement for MIL-STD 1686 and ANSI/EIA-625 ESD Control Standards.

* * * MIL-STD-1686C NOTICE 1 12 January 2021 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE STANDARD PRACTICE ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE CONTROL PROGRAM FOR PROTECTION OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PARTS, ASSEMBLIES AND EQUIPMENT (EXCLUDING ELECTRICALLY INITIATED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES) MIL-STD-1686C, dated 25 October 1995, is hereby canceled. ANSI/ESD S20.20, “ESD Association Standard for the Development of an Electrostatic Discharge Control Program for Protection of Electrical and Electronic Parts, Assemblies and Equipment (Excluding Electrically Initiated Explosive Devices),” supersedes MIL-STD-1686C. Link:

Standard Test Methods

AATCC 134 Electrostatic Propensity of Carpets

This test method assesses the static-generating propensity of carpets developed when a person walks across them. This method uses controlled laboratory simulation of the conditions that may be encountered in use. The simulation is focused on the use of those conditions, which are known from experience to be strong contributors to excessive accumulation of static charges.

ESDA Electronics Industry Standard Test Methods (STM)

Note: ESD Standards are industry specific. The following standard test methods are used by other industries to determine conformity to their industry standards.

ANSI/ESD STM7.1 – 2020  ESD Association Standard Test Method for the Protection of Electrostatic Discharge Susceptible Items – Floor Materials – Resistive Characterization of Materials

This standard test method provides procedures for measuring the electrical resistance of floor materials used for the control of electrostatic charge and discharge. It also provides test methods for the qualification of floor materials prior to their installation or application, as well as test methods for acceptance and monitoring of floor materials after installation or application.

Floor Materials-Resistive Characterization of Flooring Materials in Environmentally Protected Areas (EPA).

Point to Point: < 1.0 x 10E9 ohms

Point to Groundable Point: < 1.0 x 10E9 ohms

ANSI/ESD STM97.1 (Resistance)  ESD Association Standard Test Method for the Protection of Electrostatic Discharge Susceptible Items – Floor Materials and Footwear – Resistance Measurement in Combination with a Person.

This document provides test methods for measuring the electrical system resistance of floor materials in combination with persons wearing static control footwear.

Resistance of Footwear/Flooring System

< 1.0 x 10E9 ohms

ANSI/ESD STM97.2 (Charge Generation)  ESD Association Standard Test Methods for the measurement of the voltage on a person in combination with floor materials and static control footwear, shoes or other devices.

Floor Materials and Footwear Voltage Measurement in Combination with a Person.

< 100 volts Peak

ASTM F150 – 06(2018) Standard Test Method for Electrical Resistance of Conductive and Static Dissipative Resilient Flooring

This test method covers the determination of electrical conductance or resistance of resilient flooring either in tile or sheet form, for applications such as hospitals, computer rooms, clean rooms, access flooring, munition plants, or any other environment concerning personnel-generated static electricity.

ESD Consultants

Dangelmayer Associates, LLC

Training Workshops & Consulting

Dangelmayer Associates is globally recognized for outstanding training skills and customized courses such as CDM, CBE, EOS, S20.20, Class 0, ESD Program. Also provides EOS ESD consulting services.

Electro-tech Systems (ETS)

Onsite ESD Testing and Consulting

Onsite Testing Services are available to perform compliance or qualification of ESD Control and Work Area Materials Qualification per ASTM/ESDA S20.20 and the applicable underlying standards.

Fowler Associates

ESD Testing and consulting

Fowler Associates provides consulting, training, testing, auditing, expert witness and forensic investigations for Electrostatics, ESD, RFI, Electrical, Electronics, Radiation Processing, Radiation Safety and Packaging

Courses / Education

ESD Association

Training and Education

By actively sponsoring and encouraging various educational programs and activities, EOS/ESD Association, Inc. provides ESD professionals with the knowledge and tools needed to meet the challenges of ESD in their companies.

Dangelmayer Associates, LLC

Training Workshops

Dangelmayer Associates is globally recognized for outstanding training skills and customized courses such as CDM, CBE, EOS, S20.20, Class 0, ESD Program.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

ESD Control Training Course

This ESD Control class trains the student with methods to safely protect electronic devices and assemblies from the devastating effects of ESD. California Institute of Technology

StaticWorx, Inc.

AIA ESD Workshops (accredited AIA workshops)

In his AIA workshops, Dave combines comprehensive technical knowledge with a practical understanding of how static-control materials perform in real-world environments. Using a hands-on approach, he teaches architects to solve complex problems in applications where static charges could harm electronics, damage mission-critical equipment, and pose safety risks.

Online Courses

Please note: this is a partial listing of generally available online ESD training courses. StaticWorx, Inc. is not affiliated with and does NOT endorse these online courses.

ESD Systems

Online training course

Training documents, quiz answers from ESD guide

PIEK Training

Certified ESD Plant Auditor/Trainer

This training prepares for the so-called ESD coordinator level as described in the ESD standards, issued by the IEC organization.

Online training course

Automated Learning’s LearnTech® ESD training and certification courses are targeted to service personnel, operators, assemblers, technicians, engineers.

ESD Professional Certifications

Dangelmayer Associates, LLC

Facility ESD Auditor TR53 Certification Course

Facility ESD Auditor TR53 Certification Course Plus Auditor Certification for Charged Device Model (CDM) + Charged Board Event (CBE) + Cable Discharge Events. Dangelmayer Associates is globally recognized for outstanding training skills and customized courses such as CDM, CBE, S20.20, EOS, S20.20 Class 0, ESD Program Management.

Electronics Specifier

ESD Control Professional Certification

Standardized ESD training and certification courses for the electronics industry to train operators and trainers on ESD controls and best practices.

EOS/ESD Association

ESD Certification Programs

Become invaluable to your company and business by earning facility certifications and personal certifications from EOS/ESD Association, Inc.


Electrostatic Discharge Control (ESD) Certification

The iNARTE Electrostatic Discharge Control (ESD) Certification Program is appropriate for engineers and technicians whose training and experience has primarily focused on engineering design and corrective measures associated with minimizing or eliminating electrostatic discharge.

Prostat University

TR53 Certified ESD Technician Training Course

The TR53 Certified ESD Technician Training course consists of one day of classroom training, a one-day, hands-on workshop and an optional certification exam.

ESD Field Testing Services

EAG Laboratories

ESD and Latch-up Testing

Backed by EAG Laboratories for Failure Analysis, FIB Circuit Edit, Reliability, Microscopy. High capacity latch-up laboratory located in the heart of Silicon Valley. For aerospace and defense.

Electro-tech Systems (ETS):

Onsite ESD Testing and Consulting

Onsite Testing Services are available to perform compliance or qualification of ESD Control and Work Area Materials Qualification per ASTM/ESDA S20.20 and the applicable underlying standards.

EOS/ESD Association

ESD Facility Certification

The Facility Certification Program evaluates a facility’s ESD program based on the industry standards ANSI/ESD S20.20 or IEC 61340-5-1.

Fowler Associates

ESD Testing and consulting

Fowler Associates provides consulting, training, testing, auditing, expert witness and forensic investigations for Electrostatics, ESD, RFI, Electrical, Electronics, Radiation Processing, Radiation Safety and Packaging

Keystone Compliance

Complete ESD Testing Scope

Complete EMC, EMI and RF Testing. Short Lead Times on Scheduling. Professional Reports. Our Consultative Compliance Testing Approach Streamlines The Process.

MicroStat Laboratories

ESD Auditing and Facility Evaluation

MicroStat Laboratories provides complete ESD auditing and facility evaluation services to help you identify problems and provide the information you need for corrective action and continuous improvement.


ESDA-accredited Facility Certification

NQA’s ESDA-accredited Facility Certification program offers organizations a way to ensure that their programs meet the requirements and provides evidence of compliance for customer and marketing purposes.

TÜV SÜV America

ESDA-accredited Auditing and System Testing

ANSI/ESD S20.20 certification serves as an independent verification of the quality and effectiveness of an ESD control program.


EOS/ESD Association Journal

EOS/ESD Association Journal

EOS/ESD Association, Inc. reviews and evaluates papers in the field of Electrostatic Discharge (ESD). The Association journal is a compilation of selected papers presented at the world’s foremost ESD conferences.

ESD Journal

ESD and Electrostatics

The ESD Journal is the only trade magazine in the industry with its own labs and experts for testing products, ideas, theories, inventions and products.

This page was last reviewed on 6/11/2024. It will be reviewed again no later than 6/11/2025.

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StaticWorx high-performance static-control floors protect electronic components, explosives, and high-speed computers from damage caused by static electricity. ESD flooring is part of a system. Choices should always be based on objective, researched evidence. When you partner with us, we look at all possible items that may need to integrate with the floor, and, focusing on your goals and objectives, help you find the right floor for your application.